Posts Tagged ‘marijuana’

Possession of a Controlled Substance: Drug Possession Laws

March 3rd, 2014

drug possession

Drug Possession, a.k.a. Possession of a controlled substance is defined in Ohio as knowingly obtaining, possessing or using a controlled substance under the Ohio Revised Code § 2925.11.  As applied to marijuana, possession of less than 100 grams (or about 3.5 ounces), giving 20 grams or less of marijuana to another person, or growing less than 100 grams of marijuana are each considered  “minor misdemeanors,” punishable by a maximum fine of $150. A minor misdemeanor is not a “jailable” offense, but a person’s driver’s license can be suspended for a period ranging from six months to five years, and a conviction on a person’s record can have far-reaching effects when it comes to job prospects and housing. Possession of marijuana is still a very serious charge in Ohio despite the national movements to legalize and/or decriminalize marijuana possession.  In fact, we have seen a dramatic increase in drug possession enforcement by the Ohio State Highway Patrol.

Under R.C. 3719.41, controlled substances in Ohio are classified into five schedules, ranging from the most serious drugs with the harshest penalties to the least serious drugs with the least harsh penalties.  Many are surprised to learn that marijuana is considered as a Schedule I (the highest) drug.  As such, drug possession involving marijuana is a very serious offense.

  • Schedule I – These substances have a high potential for abuse by users and no known or accepted medical use in the United States. Some examples of controlled substances in this category are marijuana, mescaline, morphine, peyote and psilocyn.
  • Schedule II – These substances have a high potential for abuse, but may have limited accepted medical use in the United States. Examples in this category include codeine, methadone and GHB.
  • Schedule III – These substances have some potential for abuse and accepted medical uses in the United States. Controlled substances in this schedule include anabolic steroids, ketamine and barbituric acid.
  • Schedule IV – These substances have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule III drugs and have known medical uses in the United States. Common examples in this schedule can include Xanax, Valium and the generic versions of these types of drugs.
  • Schedule V – Substances in this schedule have the least likelihood for abuse and are commonly used for medical treatment in the United States. Examples in this schedule can include medications with small amounts of narcotics.

Possessing an illegal drug in Ohio is punishable as a state offense, federal offense or both. Controlled substances or drugs can include medications with a prescription, medications without a prescription, street drugs, illegal drugs, natural substances and chemicals.  Because “drug possession” is a required element of the offense, if the prosecution is unable to prove the alleged offender had either actual or constructive possession of the controlled substance, they will most likely be unable to convict the offender.

The analysis of a drug possession investigation is very similar to the approach we take to an impaired driving case.  What that means is that we deconstruct each and every decision that the officer makes.  Was there proper justification for the traffic stop? Did the officer have reasonable and articulable suspicion to continue the detention to conduct a drug investigation?  Did the officer conduct an illegal search of your person and/or vehicle? Did the officer’s actions, based on a totality of the circumstances, establish probable cause for a drug possession arrest?  Was the evidence handled or tested properly?  Can the government establish a proper chain of custody for the evidence?  Our mission is to get your case thrown out! We act aggressively to keep you out of jail, keep your fines low and protect your freedom.

We have a great track record of defending drug trafficking, distribution, possession and other drug charges.  We know how to seek treatment in lieu of conviction and how to minimize penalties. We also have a track record consistent with fighting these charges.  For the past five years we have been the chosen team to represent Miami Valley N.O.R.M.L.  We speak, we advocate and we defend.

If you are facing a drug possession charge in the Miami Valley, call Charles M. Rowland II for a free consultation at (937) 318-1384.  If you need assistance after hours, please call the 24-7 Hotline at (937) 776-2671.

 

 

 

Ohio DUI Law: How To Fight A Urine Test

May 16th, 2013

Exquisite sample of urine produced after a lon...

In order to successfully defend a urinalysis case, a DUI defense lawyer must be familiar with Ohio’s DUI law (O.R.C. 4511.19) and the Ohio Administrative Code sections which apply to the collection, storing, transporting and testing of the urine specimen.  Amphetamine, cocaine, heroine, Marijuana, Methamphetamine, Phencyclidine and L.S.D. are specifically mentioned in Ohio’s DUI/OVI statute as illegal controlled substances. The law states how much of each substance must be detected in a chemical test of urine, whole blood, blood plasma, and/or blood serum in order to sustain a charge.  While less reliable than a blood or breath test, the urine test is increasingly favored by law e

nforcement officers because it allows them to expand the parameters of their suspicion to include illicit and prescription drugs. Sometimes the urine test will be requested after a breath test produces a result under the .08% BAC limit.  If this is the case, your attorney should employ more traditional factual defenses such as a lack of probable cause to suspect drug use before leaping to a more scientific challenge to the collection, storage, transporting or testing of the urine sample.  If the facts support a urine test then your attorney must hold the State to its proof.

The urine test must be collected by an authorized person within three hours of the alleged violation according to Ohio Revised Code 4511.19(D). It reads in pertinent part,

4511.19(D)(1)(b). In any criminal prosecution or juvenile court proceeding for a violation of division (A) or (B) of this section or for an equivalent offense that is vehicle-related, the court may admit evidence on the concentration of alcohol, drugs of abuse, controlled substances, metabolites of a controlled substance, or a combination of them in the defendant’s whole blood, blood serum or plasma, breath, urine, or other bodily substance at the time of the alleged violation as shown by chemical analysis of the substance withdrawn within three hours of the time of the alleged violation. The three-hour time limit specified in this division regarding the admission of evidence does not extend or affect the two-hour time limit specified in division (A) of section 4511.192 of the Revised Code as the maximum period of time during which a person may consent to a chemical test or tests as described in that section. The court may admit evidence on the concentration of alcohol, drugs of abuse, or a combination of them as described in this division when a person submits to a blood, breath, urine, or other bodily substance test at the request of a law enforcement officer under section 4511.191 of the Revised Code or a blood or urine sample is obtained pursuant to a search warrant. Only a physician, a registered nurse, an emergency medical technician-intermediate, an emergency medical technician-paramedic, or a qualified technician, chemist, or phlebotomist shall withdraw a blood sample for the purpose of determining the alcohol, drug, controlled substance, metabolite of a controlled substance, or combination content of the whole blood, blood serum, or blood plasma. This limitation does not apply to the taking of breath or urine specimens. A person authorized to withdraw blood under this division may refuse to withdraw blood under this division, if in that person’s opinion, the physical welfare of the person would be endangered by the withdrawing of blood.

Ohio Administrative Code 3701-53 sets forth the manner in which the urine samples are to be collected. 3710-53-05 (D) states that the “collection of a urine specimen must be witnessed to assure that the sample can be authenticated.”  It further requires that the “urine shall be deposited into a clean glass or plastic screw top container which shall be capped.”  This section also contains an escape hatch for prosecutors if the collection is botched.  The test will still be admitted if it was “collected according to the laboratory protocol as written in the laboratory procedure manual.”  3701-53-05(E) requires the “urine containers shall be sealed in a manner such that tampering can be detected and have a label which contains at least the following information:

  1. Name of suspect;
  2. Date and time of collection;
  3. Name or initials of person collecting the sample; and
  4. Name or initials of person sealing the sample.

Much case law has been decided regarding the refrigeration requirement of 3701-53-05(F), which requires that, “While not in transit or under examination, all blood and urine specimens shall be refrigerated.”  In State v. Koehler (2000), 107 Ohio Misc. 2d 28, a Pataskala urine specimen spent eighteen days in the mail, unrefrigerated, on its way to lab in Columbus. The Court found the undue delay in transit leads to conclusion there was not substantial compliance with refrigeration requirement.  In State v. Cook (1992), 82 Ohio App. 3d 619, the court found the O.A.C. regulations were substantially complied with where urine sample was not refrigerated for fifteen to twenty minutes between collection and being mailed to lab in Columbus, or during the three days it was in the mail.  If you suspect that your sample was not properly refrigerated you should hire an expert witness.  In State v. Casaday (1987), 40 Ohio App. 3d 52, a diabetic defendant challenged a urine sample.  The court held that “[d]espite substantial compliance with Ohio Adm. Code 3701-53-05(F) in the analysis of a urine sample, test results may be inadmissible based on expert testimony that the results were inaccurate due to fermentation caused by lack of refrigeration and the high glucose content of the urine sample.”

Ohio Administrative Code 3701-53-03(A)(1) and (A)(2)  sets forth the two approved methods for testing alcohol in urine: Gas chromatography and Enzyme assays.  O.A.C. 3701-53-03(B)(1) through (B)(6) sets forth the approved method for testing drugs of abuse in a urine sample: (1) Immunoassay; (2) Thin-layer chromatography; (3) Gas chromatography; (4) Mass spectroscopy; (5) High performance liquid chromatography; or (6) Spectroscopy.  Urine evidence can be excluded if the method used to analyze the urine for alcohol, if not a specifically approved method, does not have documented sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and linearity, or the method is not based on procedures which have been published in a peer reviewed or juried scientific journal or thoroughly documented by the laboratory pursuant to OAC 3701-53-03(A).  OAC 3701-53-03(B) requires the positive results of presumptive tests for drugs of abuse be confirmed by one or more dissimilar analytical techniques or methods as a part of a testing procedure.

Another area of challenge is the calibration of the machines used to test the samples. O.A.C. 3701-53-04 sets forth the requirements for instrument checks, controls and certifications.  It reads, in pertinent part,

(A) A senior operator shall perform an instrument check on approved evidential breath testing instruments listed under paragraphs (A)(1), (A)(2), and (B) of rule 3701-53-02no less frequently than once every seven days in accordance with the appropriate instrument checklist for the instrument being used. The instrument check may be performed anytime up to one hundred and ninety-two hours after the last instrument check.

  1. The instrument shall be checked to detect radio frequency interference (RFI) using a hand-held radio normally used by the law enforcement agency performing the instrument check. The RFI detector check is valid when the evidential breath testing instrument detects RFI or aborts a subject test. If the RFI detector check is not valid, the instrument shall not be used until the instrument is serviced.
  2. An instrument shall be checked using a solution containing ethyl alcohol approved by the director of health. An instrument check result is valid when the result of the instrument check is at or within five one-thousandths ( 0.005 ) grams per two hundred ten liters of the target value for that approved solution. An instrument check result which is outside the range specified in this paragraph shall be confirmed by the senior operator using another bottle of approved solution. If this instrument check result is also out of range, the instrument shall not be used until the instrument is serviced or repaired.

(B) Instruments listed under paragraph (A)(3) of rule 3701-53-02 of the Administrative Code shall automatically perform a dry gas control test before and after every subject test and instrument certification using a dry gas standard traceable to the national institute of standards and technology(NIST). Dry gas control results are valid when the results are at or within five one-thousandths ( 0.005 ) grams per two hundred ten liters of the alcohol concentration on the manufacturer’s certificate of analysis for that dry gas standard. A dry gas control result which is outside the range specified in this paragraph will abort the subject test or instrument certification in progress.

(C) Representatives of the director shall perform an instrument certification on approved evidential breath testing instruments listed under paragraph (A) (3) of rule 3701-53-02 of the Administrative Code using a solution containing ethyl alcohol approved by the director of health according to the instrument display for the instrument being certified. An instrument shall be certified no less frequently than once every calendar year or when the dry gas standard on the instrument is replaced, whichever comes first. Instrument certifications are valid when the certification results are at or within five one-thousandths grams per two hundred ten liters of the target value for that approved solution. Instruments with certification results outside the range specified in this paragraph will require the instrument be removed from service until the instrument is serviced or repaired. Certification results shall be retained in a manner prescribed by the director of health.

(D) An instrument check or certification shall be made in accordance with paragraphs (A) and (C) of this rule when a new evidential breath testing instrument is placed in service or when the instrument is returned after service or repairs, before the instrument is used to test subjects.

(E) A bottle of approved solution shall not be used more than three months after its date of first use, or after the manufacturer’s expiration date on the approved solution certificate, whichever comes first. After first use, a bottle of approved solution shall be kept under refrigeration when not being used. The approved solution bottle shall be retained for reference until that bottle of approved solution is discarded.

(F) Each testing day, the analytical techniques or methods used in rule 3701-53-03 of the Administrative Code shall be checked for proper calibration under the general direction of the designated laboratory director. General direction does not mean that the designated laboratory director must be physically present during the performance of the calibration check.

(G) Results of instrument checks, controls, certifications, calibration checks and records of service and repairs shall be retained in accordance with paragraph (A) of rule 3701-53-01 of the Administrative Code.

Your attorney should also file a detailed discovery request requiring the lab to document the chain of custody and a request that the sample be made available for private testing by your privately retained expert.  Ohio Administrative Code 3701-53-06(A), requires that the, “[c]hain of custody and the test results for evidential alcohol and drugs of abuse shall be identified and retained for not less than three years, after which time the documents may be discarded unless otherwise directed in writing from a court. All positive blood, urine and other bodily substances shall be retained in accordance with rule 3701-53-05 of the Administrative Code for a period of not less than one year, after which time the specimens may be discarded unless otherwise directed in writing from a court.”  Your attorney should also demand proof that the laboratory has complied with each of the additional requirements set forth in O.A.C. 3701-53-06 which include:

(B) The laboratory shall successfully complete a national proficiency testing program using the applicable technique or method for which the laboratory personnel seek a permit under rule 3701-53-09 of the Administrative Code.

(C) The laboratory shall have a written procedure manual of all analytical techniques or methods used for testing of alcohol or drugs of abuse in bodily substances. Textbooks and package inserts or operator manuals from the manufacturer may be used to supplement, but may not be used in lieu of the laboratory’s own procedure manual for testing specimens.

(D) The designated laboratory director shall review, sign, and date the procedure manual as certifying that the manual is in compliance with this rule. The designated laboratory director shall ensure that:

  1. Any changes in a procedure be approved, signed, and dated by the designated laboratory director;
  2. The date the procedure was first used and the date the procedure was revised or discontinued is recorded;
  3. A procedure shall be retained for not less than three years after the procedure was revised or discontinued, or in accordance with a written order issued by any court to the laboratory to save a specimen that was analyzed under that procedure;
  4. Laboratory personnel are adequately trained and experienced to perform testing of blood, urine and other bodily substances for alcohol and drugs of abuse and shall ensure, maintain and document the competency of laboratory personnel. The designated laboratory director shall also monitor the work performance and verify the skills of laboratory personnel;
  5. The procedure manual includes the criteria the laboratory shall use in developing standards, controls, and calibrations for the technique or method involved; and
  6. A complete and timely procedure manual is available and followed by laboratory personnel.

Your Ohio DUI attorney should also file a detailed discovery request for information on the personnel conducting the testing to see if the person meets the required qualifications as set forth in Ohio Administrative Code 3701-53-07.  Did the laboratory technician who analyzed the urine complete the proficiency exam, administered by a national program for proficiency testing for the approved technique or method of analysis used to test the urine, in a satisfactory manner, pursuant to OAC 3701-53-07(A)(2) for alcohol and OAC 3701-53-07(B)(2) for drugs of abuse?  Was the laboratory technician who analyzed the urine certified by the designated laboratory director that he or she is competent to perform all procedures contained in the laboratory’s written procedure manual for testing specimens, pursuant to OAC 3701-53-07(A)(2) for alcohol and 3701-53-07(B)(2) for drugs of abuse?  Did the laboratory technician who analyzed the urine meet the requirements set forth in OAC 3701-53-07 (A)(2)(a-d) for alcohol testing and OAC 3701-53-07(B)(2)(a-d) for drug testing?  Did the person analyzing the urine sample have a laboratory director’s permit or a laboratory technician’s permit issued by the director of health under OAC 3701-53-09(A)(1) for alcohol testing and (A)(2) for drug testing; and if not , was the designated laboratory director who performed the tests, the testing technician under the general direction of a laboratory director pursuant to OAC 3701-53-07(A) for alcohol testing and (B) for drug testing?  Did the person analyzing the urine, if they were a laboratory technician, conduct a technique or method of analysis that was listed on the laboratory director’s permit, pursuant to OAC 3701-53-07(A) for alcohol testing and 3701-53-07(B) for drug testing?  And finally, did the designated director of the laboratory where the urine was analyzed meet the qualifications for said laboratory director’s permit, pursuant to OAC 3701-53-07(A)(1) for alcohol testing and OAC 3701-53-07(B)(1) for drug testing?  Ohio Administrative Code 3701-53-08 sets forth the requirements that lab personnel pass surveys and proficiency tests.  Make sure your attorney’s discovery requests demands to see the results of these tests.

Assuming that each and every regulation was followed to the letter, your attorney can still mount a defense based on the weakness of urinalysis in general.  Illicit drugs remain in the urine much after their impairing influence has dissipated. Marijuana can show up in a urine test three days after the drug has been used.  Heavy users of marijuana can have metabolites in their urine for up to three months.  Significant issues exist for alcohol urine tests due to alcohol’s affinity for water.  Alcohol is normally present in water at a much higher rate than in the blood. Because of this higher occurrence a urine test will usually result in a person being convicted of DUI even though their actual BAC is within legal limits.  The National Institute of Drug Abuse conducted a study of urine tests and found that 1 in 5 testing labs incorrectly reported the presence of illegal drugs in urine samples – A 20% ERROR RATE!  Imagine going to your bank and asking for $10,000.00.  The teller returns with $8,000.00 and apologetically tells you that the bank is within 20%.  You would never accept such a shoddy result.  You should hire an attorney who will challenge the entire process of collecting, documenting, transferring, and testing urine.  This will require an attorney who has dedicated themselves to obtaining the highest level of skill in the complex field of DUI defense.

DUI attorney Charles M. Rowland II dedicates his practice to defending the accused drunk driver in Fairborn, Dayton, Springfield, Kettering, Vandalia, Xenia, Miamisburg, Springboro, Huber Heights, Oakwood, Beavercreek, Centerville and throughout Ohio.  He has the credentials and the experience to win your case and has made himself the Miami Valley’s choice for DUI defense.  Contact Charles Rowland by phone at 937-318-1DUI (937-318-1384), 937-879-9542, or toll-free at 1-888-ROWLAND (888-769-5263).  For after-hours help contact our 24/7 DUI HOTLINE at 937-776-2671.  For information about Dayton DUI sent directly to your mobile device, text DaytonDUI (one word) to 50500.  Follow DaytonDUI on Twitter @DaytonDUI or Get Twitter updates via SMS by texting DaytonDUI to 40404. DaytonDUI is also available on Facebook and on the DaytonDUI channel on YouTube.  You can also email Charles Rowland at: CharlesRowland@DaytonDUI.com or write to us at 2190 Gateway Dr., Fairborn, Ohio 45324. “All I do is DUI

Driving and Drugs: Ohio’s Per Se Marijuana Law

December 7th, 2012

Bottle for alcohol extract of cannabis. Label ...

While it is well established that alcohol consumption increases accident risk, evidence of marijuana’s culpability in on-road driving accidents and injury is far less clear. Although acute cannabis intoxication following inhalation has been shown to mildly impair psychomotor skills, this impairment is seldom severe or long lasting.  According to the US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. State of Knowledge of Drugged Driving: FINAL REPORT. op. cit., “Experimental research on the effects of cannabis … indicat[e] that any effects … dissipate quickly after one hour.”  According to the 2004 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration factsheet, Drugs and Human Performance, peak acute effects are typically reached within 10 to 30 minutes after inhalation.

In Ohio, a person is guilty of DUI if he or she operates any vehicle under the influence of alcohol, a drug of abuse, or a combination of them. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 4511.19.  In Ohio the threshold for drugged driving is illustrated in the following table. Ohio’s DUI Per Se Levels Id. § 4511.19(A)(1)(vii); Id. § 4511.19(A)(1)(viii)(I)-(II).

Prohibited Substance Urine Blood
Marijuana 10 ng/ml 2 ng/ml
Marijuana metabolite 35 ng/ml 50 ng/ml
Marijuana metabolite in combination with alcohol or other drugs 15 ng/ml 5 ng/ml

The above levels establish a per se level above which a person is considered to be statutorily impaired by marijuana. Ohio’s law represents the imposition of per se laws for drivers who test positive for THC in the blood without additional demonstrable evidence of psychomotor impairment.  Just like with alcohol, the “legal limit” is not linked with any qualities of the individual, including weight, frequency of use, time of last use or the bodies ability to metabolize THC.  The penalties imposed for a violation of the marijuana per se law are equivalent to the penalties for OVI.

DUI attorney Charles M. Rowland II dedicates his practice to defending the accused drunk driver in Fairborn, Dayton, Springfield, Kettering, Vandalia, Xenia, Miamisburg, Springboro, Huber Heights, Oakwood, Beavercreek, Centerville and throughout Ohio.  He has the credentials and the experience to win your case and has made himself the Miami Valley’s choice for DUI defense.  Contact Charles Rowland by phone at 937-318-1DUI (937-318-1384), 937-879-9542, or toll-free at 1-888-ROWLAND (888-769-5263).  For after-hours help contact our 24/7 DUI HOTLINE at 937-776-2671.  For information about Dayton DUI sent directly to your mobile device, text DaytonDUI (one word) to 50500.  Follow DaytonDUI on Twitter @DaytonDUI or Get Twitter updates via SMS by texting DaytonDUI to 40404. DaytonDUI is also available on Facebook and on the DaytonDUI channel on YouTube.  You can also email Charles Rowland at: CharlesRowland@DaytonDUI.com or write to us at 2190 Gateway Dr., Fairborn, Ohio 45324.

Ohio OVI: Standardized Field Sobriety Tests & Marijuana

December 7th, 2012

State v. Dixon, 2007-Ohio-5189 (Ohio Ct. App. 12th Dist. Clermont County 2007).

Cannabis is another commonly used recreational...

More and more, we are seeing law enforcement officers arrest drivers on suspicion of operating a vehicle under the influence of marijuana.  Often, an officer will request a urine test for marijuana after a defendant has blown substantially under the per se alcohol limit on a breath test machine.  This raises questions about the proper determination of probable cause.  If, for example, no alcohol was suspected how did the officer arrive deduce enough evidence to make an arrest? Were the standardized field sobriety tests administered to detect alcohol or something else?  Can the standardized field sobriety tests use in Ohio demonstrate impairment by any other drug than alcohol?

Because Ohio does not follow the Drug Recognition Expert (D.R.E.) protocol adopted in other states, the officer is left to rely on his training and experience in investigating a suspected marijuana-impaired driver.  This means that the officer will usually attempt to testify as to the defendant’s performance on the horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN) test to support the probable cause for an arrest.  But is the HGN a proper test for marijuana?

In State v. Dixon, 2007-Ohio-5189 (Ohio Ct. App. 12th Dist. Clermont County 2007), the court addressed the issue of standardized field sobriety tests and marijuana impairment.  Relying upon the NHTSA standards, the court concluded that observations as to performance on the walk & turn test and the one-leg stand test were indicative of impairment, thus allowing those to be used against a suspected marijuana user.  The HGN test, however, is not indicative of marijuana impairment.  According to NHTSA nystagmus would not be present due to marijuana and, as such, it was plain error to admit evidence of the HGN against the defendant.

Dayton DUI attorney Charles M. Rowland II dedicates his practice to defending the accused drunk driver.  He has the credentials and the experience to win your case and has made himself the Miami Valley’s choice for DUI defense.  Contact Charles Rowland by phone at 937-318-1DUI (937-318-1384), 937-879-9542, or toll-free at 1-888-ROWLAND (888-769-5263).  For after-hours help contact our 24/7 DUI HOTLINE at 937-776-2671.  For information about Dayton DUI sent directly to your mobile device, text DaytonDUI (one word) to 50500.  Follow DaytonDUI on Twitter @DaytonDUI or Get Twitter updates via SMS by texting DaytonDUI to 40404. DaytonDUI is also available on Facebook, www.facebook.com/daytondui and on the DaytonDUI channel on YouTube.  You can also email Charles Rowland at: CharlesRowland@DaytonDUI.com or write to us at 2190 Gateway Dr., Fairborn, Ohio 45324.

Aggravated Drug Trafficking vs. Drug Trafficking in Ohio

February 22nd, 2012

Because of the high-profile nature of drug offenses, trafficking in drugs has overlapping federal and state jurisdiction.  The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act is the legal foundation of “War on Drugs” in the United States. The Act regulates the manufacture, possession, movement, and distribution of drugs in our country. It places all drugs into one of five schedules, or classifications, and is controlled by the Department of Justice and the Department of Health and Human Services, including the Federal Drug Administration.  Ohio law, as set forth below, adopts this drug classification system.  Drug trafficking can be charged as a federal offense, Ohio offense or both a state and federal offense.  In Ohio, O.R.C. 2925.03 prohibits trafficking in drugs.  It provides that,

(A) No person shall knowingly do any of the following:

(1) Sell or offer to sell a controlled substance;

(2) Prepare for shipment, ship, transport, deliver, prepare for distribution, or distribute a controlled substance, when the offender knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the controlled substance is intended for sale or resale by the offender or another person.

Ohio uses “Schedules” to classify drugs. See O.R.C. 3719.41.  Schedule I drugs have the most potential for abuse and no acknowledged medical use in the United States. Drugs in this schedule include heroin, cocaine, marihuana and hashish.  Schedule II drugs include drugs like hydrocodone, opium, methamphetamine and opium which have a great potential for abuse and a minimal medical use.  LSD and pentobarbital have an acknowledged medical use and a lower potential for abuse, thus they are classified as Schedule III drugs.  Schedule IV drugs have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule III drugs and have accepted medical uses in the United States. Examples of controlled substances in this schedule are Xanax and Valium.  Schedule V drugs have a lower chance of abuse than Schedule IV drugs, have a currently accepted medical use in the US, and lesser chance or side effects of dependence compared to Schedule IV drugs.  This schedule includes such drugs as cough suppressants with Codeine. Schedule V drugs are regulated but generally do not require a prescription.

According to Ohio Rev. Code § 2925.03(C)(1), if the offense involves certain controlled substance in Schedule I or II, it is considered aggravated trafficking in drugs.  Drug trafficking, Ohio Rev. Code § 2925.03(C)(2), generally only applies to controlled substances listed in schedules III, IV or V of Ohio’s drug schedule.  The penalty provisions for drug offenses are among the most complicated in the criminal code and require an attorney of sophistication to navigate.  If you get arrested for possession of a controlled substance, aggravated trafficking or any other drug charge, it feels like your world is falling apart.  If you are unfamiliar with the judicial system you are likely scared to death and wondering what will happen.  The first and most important decision you can make at this point is to hire an experienced and competent defender.  Charles M. Rowland II will file a motion to suppress, aggressively prepare for trial and present your best case to the prosecutor.  Preparation leads to better results including dismissal, a reduction in your charge, treatments in lieu of conviction, or an acquittal at trial. CONTACT him here!

Charles M. Rowland II dedicates his practice to defending the accused in FairbornDayton,SpringfieldKetteringVandaliaXeniaMiamisburgSpringboroHuber HeightsOakwood,BeavercreekCenterville and throughout Ohio.  He is counsel to Miami Valley NORML and a speaker for LEAP (Law Enforcement Against Prohibition).  He has the credentials and the experience to win your case and has made himself the Miami Valley’s choice for DUI defense.  Contact Charles Rowland by phone at 937-318-1DUI (937-318-1384), 937-879-9542, or toll-free at 1-888-ROWLAND (888-769-5263).  For after-hours help contact our 24/7 DUI HOTLINE at937-776-2671.  For information about Dayton DUI sent directly to your mobile device, text DaytonDUI (one word) to 50500.  Follow DaytonDUI on Twitter @DaytonDUI or Get Twitter updates via SMS by texting DaytonDUI to 40404. DaytonDUI is also available on Facebookand on the DaytonDUI channel on YouTube.  You can also email Charles Rowland at:CharlesRowland@DaytonDUI.com or write to us at 2190 Gateway Dr., Fairborn, Ohio 45324.