The 47 Types & 38 Causes of Nystagmus; (It’s Not Just Caused by Alcohol)

Field sobriety test

The horizontal gaze nystagmus test is an eye test approved by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration(hereinafter NHTSA) as a tool to detect clues of impairment in drivers. The HGNtest is one of three psychomotor tests approved as part of the standardized field sobriety testing protocol employed by law enforcement officers throughout the United States and used here in Ohio. The HGN is a test of your eyes wherein the testing officer is looking for abnormal movements call saccades.  These movements make the eye appear to bounce or wobble.  The officer uses this movement to make a correlation to alcohol use.  This would valid only if we are able to demonstrate that nystagmus is specific to alcohol impairment.  However, we know that there are other causes of nystagmus.  It is up to your DUI lawyer to demonstrate another valid reason for what the officer is observing.  You can find information about the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test and its biases on this site.

Listed beloware some other scientifically recognized causes of nystagmus.

47 Types of Nystagmus

1. Acquired

2. Anticipatory(Induced)

3. Arthrokinetic(Induced,Somatosensory)

4. Associated(Induced,Stransky’s

5. AudioKinetic(Induced)

6. Bartel’s(Induced)

7. Brun’s

8. Centripetal

9. Cervical(NeckTorsion,Vestibular-0basilarArteryInsufficiency

10.Crcular/Elliptic/Oblique (Alternataing Windmill, Circumduction, Diagonal,

Elliptic, Gyratory, Oblique, Radiary)

11.Congenital (Fixation, Hereditary)

12.Convergence

13.Convergence Invocked

14.Disaccociated, Disjunctive

15.Downbeat

16.Drug Induced (Barbiturate, Bow Tie, Induced)

17.Epileptic (Ictal

18.Flash Induced

19.Gaze-Evoked (Deviational, Gaze-Paretic, Neurasthenic, Seducible, Setting-In)

20.Horizontal

21.Induced (Provoked)

22.Intermittent Vertical

23.Jerk

24.Latent/Manifest Latent (Monocular Fixation, Unimacular)

25.Lateral Medullary

26.Lid

27.Miner’s (Occupational)

28.Muscle Paretic (Myasthenic)

29.Optokinetic (Induced, Optomotor, Panoramic, Railway, Sigma)

30.Optokinetic After-Induced (Post-Optokinetic, Reverse Post-Optokinetic)

31.Pendular (Talantropia)

32.Periodic/Aperiodic Alternating

33.Physiologic (End-Point, Fatigue)

34.Pursuit After Induced

35.Pursuit Defect

36.Pseudo Spontaneous

37.Rebound

38.Reflex (Baer’s)

39.See-Saw

40.Somatosensory

41.Spontaneous

42.Stepping Around

43.Torsional

44.Uniocular

45.Upbeat

46.Vertical

47.Vestibular (Agotropic, Geotro-Pic, Bechterew’s, Caloric, Compensatory,Electrical/Faradic/Gal Vanic, Labyrinthine, Pneumatic/Compression, Positional/Alcohol, Pseudo Caloric)

Obtained from Dr. L. F. Dell’Osso, Nystagmus, Saccadic Intrusions/Oscillations and Oscillopsia, 3 Current Neuro-Opthamology 147 (1989).  There are also 38 verified causes for a horizontal gaze nystagmus other than alcohol impairment.

 

38 Causes of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

1. ProblemsWithTheInnerEarLabyrinth

2. Irrigating The Ears With Warm Or Cold Water Under Peculiar Weather

Conditions

3. Influenza

4. StreptococcusInfection

5. Vertigo

6. Measles

7. Syphilis

8. Arteriosclerosis

9. MuscularDystrophy

10.Multiple Sclerosis

11.Korchaff’s Syndrome

12.Brain Hemorrhage

13.Epilepsy

14.Hypertension

15.Motion Sickness

16.Sunstroke

17.Eyestrain

18.Eye Muscle Fatigue

19.Glaucoma

20.Changes In Atmospheric Pressure

21.Consumption Of Excessive Amounts Of Caffeine

22.Excessive Exposure To Nicotine

23.Aspirin

24.Circadian Rhythms

25.Acute Trauma To The Head

26.Chronic Trauma To The Head

27.Some Prescription Drugs, Tranquilizers, Pain Medications, Anti-Convulsants

28.Barbiturates

29.Disorders Of The Vestibular Apparatus And Brain Stem

30.Cerebellum Dysfunction

31.Heredity

32.Diet

33.Toxins

34.Exposure To Solvents, PCB’s, Dry-Cleaning Fumes, Carbon Monoxide

35.Extreme Chilling

36.Lesions

37.Continuous Movement Of The Visual Field Past The Eyes

38.Antihistamine Use

See Shultz v. State, 664 A.2d 60, 77 (Md. App. 1995) citing State v. Witte; State v. Clark, State v. Superior Court, and Mark A. Rouleau, Unreliability of the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test, 4 Am.Jur. Proof of Facts 3d 439 (1989); Louise J. Gordy & Roscoe N. Gray, 3A Attorney’s Textbook of Medicine § § 84.63 and 84.64 (1990).

DUI attorney Charles M. Rowland II dedicates his practice to defending the accused drunk driver in FairbornDaytonSpringfieldKetteringVandaliaXeniaMiamisburgSpringboroHuber HeightsOakwoodBeavercreekCenterville and throughout Ohio.  He has the credentials and the experience to win your case and has made himself the Miami Valley’s choice for DUI defense.  Contact Charles Rowland by phone at 937-318-1DUI (937-318-1384), 937-879-9542, or toll-free at 1-888-ROWLAND (888-769-5263).  For after-hours help contact our 24/7 DUI HOTLINE at 937-776-2671.  For information about Dayton DUI sent directly to your mobile device, text DaytonDUI (one word) to 50500.  Follow DaytonDUI on Twitter @DaytonDUI or Get Twitter updates via SMS by texting DaytonDUI to 40404. DaytonDUI is also available on Facebook and on the DaytonDUI channel on YouTube.  You can also email Charles Rowland at: CharlesRowland@DaytonDUI.com or write to us at 2190 Gateway Dr., Fairborn, Ohio 45324. “All I do is DUI.”

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